Westminster Larger Catechism – Lord’s Day 21

Q & A 75
Q What is sanctification?
A Sanctification is a work of God’s grace, whereby they whom God has, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, are in time, through the powerful operation of his Spirit *1 applying the death and resurrection of Christ unto them *2, renewed in their whole man after the image of God *3; having the seeds of repentance unto life, and all other saving graces, put into their hearts *4, and those graces so stirred up, increased, and strengthened *5, as that they more and more die unto sin, and rise unto newness of life *6.

Q & A 76
Q What is repentance unto life?
A Repentance unto life is a saving grace *7, wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit *8 and Word of God *9, whereby, out of the sight and sense, not only of the danger *10, but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins *11, and upon the apprehension of God’s mercy in Christ to such as are penitent *12, he so grieves for *13 and hates his sins *14, as that he turns from them all to God *15, purposing and endeavouring constantly to walk with him in all the ways of new obedience *16.

Q & A 77
Q Wherein do justification and sanctification differ?
A Although sanctification be inseparably joined with justification *17, yet they differ, in that God in justification imputes the righteousness of Christ *18; in sanctification of his Spirit infuses grace, and enables to the exercise thereof *19; in the former, sin is pardoned *20; in the other, it is subdued *21: the one does equally free all believers from the revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life, that they never fall into condemnation *22 the other is neither equal in all *23, nor in this life perfect in any *24, but growing up to perfection *25.

Q & A 78
Q Whence arises the imperfection of sanctification in believers?
A The imperfection of sanctification in believers arises from the remnants of sin abiding in every part of them, and the perpetual lustings of the flesh against the spirit; whereby they are often foiled with temptations, and fall into many sins *26, are hindered in all their spiritual services *27, and their best works are imperfect and defiled in the sight of God *28.

*1 Ephesians 1:4; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.
*2 Romans 6:4-6.
*3 Ephesians 4:23-24.
*4 Acts 11:18; 1 John 3:9.
*5 Jude 20; Hebrews 6:11-12; Ephesians 3:16-19; Colossians 1:10-11.
*6 Romans 6:4, 6, 14; Galatians 5:24.
*7 2 Timothy 2:25.
*8 Zechariah 12:10.
*9 Acts 11:18, 20-21.
*10 Ezekiel 18:28, 30, 32; Luke 15:17-18; Hosea 2:6-7.
*11 Ezekiel 36:31; Isaiah 30:22.
*12 Joel 2:12-13.
*13 Jeremiah 31:18-19.
*14 2 Corinthians 7:11.
*15 Acts 26:18; Ezekiel 14:6; 1 Kings 8:47-48.
*16 Psalm 119:6, 59, 128; Luke 1:6; 2 Kings 23:25.
*17 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 1:30.
*18 Romans 4:6, 8.
*19 Ezekiel 36:27.
*20 Romans 3:24-25.
*21 Romans 6:6, 14.
*22 Romans 8:33-34.
*23 1 John 2:12-14; Hebrews 5:12-14.
*24 1 John 1:8, 10.
*25 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philippians 3:12-14.
*26 Romans 7:18, 23; Mark 14:66; Galatians 2:11-12.
*27 Hebrews 12:1.
*28 Isaiah 64:6; Exodus 28:38.

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