Westminster Larger Catechism – Lord’s Day 9
Q & A 25
Q Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate into which man fell?
A The sinfulness of that estate into which man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam’s first sin,1 the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually;2 which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions.*3
Q & A 26
Q How is original sin conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity?
A Original sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in that way are conceived and born in sin.*4
Q & A 27
Q What misery did the fall bring upon mankind?
A The fall brought upon mankind the loss of communion with God,5 his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath,6 bond slaves to Satan,7 and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come.8
Q & 28
Q What are the punishments of sin in this world?
A The punishments of sin in this world are either inward, as blindness of mind,9 a reprobate sense,10 strong delusions,11 hardness of heart,12 horror of conscience,13 and vile affections;14 or outward, as the curse of God upon the creatures of our sakes,15 and all other evils that befall us in our bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments;16 together with death itself.*17
Q & A 29
Q What are the punishments of sin in the world to come?
A The punishments of sin in the world to come, are everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God, and most grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell-fire forever.*18
*1 Romans 5:12, 19.
*2 Romans 3:10-19; Ephesians 2:1-3; Romans 5:6; Romans 8:7-8; Genesis 6:5.
*3 James 1:14-15; Matthew 15:19.
*4 Psalm 51:5; Job 14:4; John 3:6.
*5 Genesis 3:8, 10, 24.
*6 Ephesians 2:2-3.
*7 2 Timothy 2:26.
*8 Genesis 2:17; Lamentations 3:39; Romans 6:23; Matthew 25:41; Matthew 25:46; Jude 7.
*9 Ephesians 4:18.
*10 Romans 1:28.
*11 2 Thessalonians 2:11.
*12 Romans 2:5.
*13 Isaiah 33:14; Genesis 4:13; Matthew 27:4.
*14 Romans 1:26.
*15 Genesis 3:17.
*16 Deuteronomy 28:15-18.
*17 Romans 6:21, 23.
*18 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Mark 9:43-44, 46, 48; Luke 16:24.