Westminster Larger Catechism – Lord’s Day 8
Q & A 19
Q What is God’s providence towards the angels?
A God by his providence permitted some of the angels, willfully and irrecoverably, to fall into sin and damnation,1 limiting and ordering that, and all their sins, to his own glory;2 and established the rest in holiness and happiness;3 employing them all,4 at his pleasure, in the administrations of his power, mercy, and justice.*5
Q & A 20
Q What was the providence of God toward man in the estate in which he was created?
A The providence of God toward man in the estate in which he was created, was the placing him in paradise, appointing him to dress it, giving him liberty to eat of the fruit of the earth;6 putting the creatures under his dominion,7 and ordaining marriage for his help;8 affording him communion with himself;9 instituting the sabbath;10 entering into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of personal, perfect, and perpetual obedience,11 of which the tree of life was a pledge;12 and forbidding to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, upon the pain of death.13
Q & A 21
Q Did man continue in that estate wherein God at first created him?
A Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, through the temptation of Satan, transgressed the commandment of God in eating the forbidden fruit; and thereby fell from the estate of innocency wherein they were created.*14
Q & A 22
Q Did all mankind fall in that first transgression?
A The covenant being made with Adam as a public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation,15 sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression.16
Q & A 23
Q Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?
A The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.*17
Q & A 24
Q What is sin?
A Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, any law of God, given as a rule to the reasonable creature.*18
*1 Jude 6; 2 Peter 2:4; Hebrews 2:16; John 8:44.
*2 Job 1:12; Matthew 8:31.
*3 1 Timothy 5:21; Mark 8:38; Hebrews 12:22.
*4 Psalm 104:4.
*5 2 Kings 19:35; Hebrews 1:14.
*6 Genesis 2:8, 15-16.
*7 Genesis 1:28.
*8 Genesis 2:18.
*9 Genesis 1:26-29.
*10 Genesis 2:3.
*11 Galatians 3:12.
*12 Genesis 2:9.
*13 Genesis 2:17.
*14 Genesis 3:6-8, 13; Ecclesiastes 7:29; 2 Corinthians 11:3.
*15 Acts 17:26.
*16 Genesis 2:16-17; Romans 5:12-20; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22.
*17 Romans 5:12; Romans 3:23.
*18 1 John 3:4; Galatians 3:10, 12.