Sovereign Grace.
The outline:
1) Heritage does not save. (1-5)
2) God always calls His own. (6-13)
3) God is just. (14-18)
4) God is true to Himself. (19-29)
5) Faith or fall. (30-33)

Some notes:
Paul has reached such a high point in affirming the certainty of God’s saving purpose being fulfilled in His people, that the beginning of chapter nine seems a strange contrast.
Having just reflected on the great salvation in store Paul is struck by sadness that a number of his Jewish brethren are not sharing this glory. That he is able to express this sentiment toward his Jewish brethren generally, having suffered at the hands of some, is a mark of his compassion.
But the Jewish people have received many tokens by which they should have been willing and eager recipients of God’s grace. No amount of heritage blessings guarantee salvation.
God has always called His own. Not all of Abraham’s descendants are part of the promise. There has not really been a great difference between some of those He chose and some He did not. Case in point: Jacob and Esau.
God is just. This is not so much proven as asserted. The holy, wise and good God makes holy, wise and good choices. To suggest otherwise is to assert moral superiority to God. Of course there are many these days who are prepared to do just that. What is evident is that God’s choice is God’s choice, yet the choices He makes are entirely in train with the wills of the creatures.
God is true to Himself in His choice. There is nothing in any human being that makes them more chooseable than any other human. The only difference between one who is part of God’s kingdom and one who is not is God’s choice. It is worth remembering that salvation is primarily about demonstrating the character and nature of God.
So, we either receive salvation by grace through faith or we either try to work for salvation or believe it is something we have because of some second party inheritance. But neither of the second choices is salvation at all.
We can only be saved by grace through faith. Alone.

(This is my second attempt at notes. The internet ate my longer first attempt. Hopefully this set of more brief notes is even more cogent.)

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